Fluxtrol | Application of High Amplitude Alternating Magnetic Fields for Induction of Nanoparticles Localized in Cancer
Application of High Amplitude Alternating Magnetic Fields for Induction of Nanoparticles Localized in Cancer
Authors:Robert Ivkov, Sally J. DeNardo, Wolfgang Daum, Allan R. Foreman, Robert C. Goldstein, Valentin S. Nemkov, and Gerald L. DeNardo
Abstract: Objective - Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to a monoclonal antibody can be i.v. injected to target cancer tissue and will rapidly heat when activated by an external alternating magnetic field (AMF). The result is necrosis of the microenvironment provided the concentration of particles and AMF amplitude are sufficient. High-amplitude AMF causes nonspecific heating in tissues through induced eddy currents, which must be minimized. In this study, application of high amplitude, confined, pulsed AMF to a mouse model is explored with the goal to provide data for a concomitant efficacy study of heating i.v. injected magnetic nanoparticles. Methods - Thirty-seven female BALB/c athymic nude mice (5-8 weeks) were exposed to an AMF with frequency of 153 kHz, and amplitude (400-1,300 Oe), duration (1-20 minutes ), duty (15-100%), and pulse ON time (2-1,200 seconds). Mice were placed in a water-cooled four-turn helical induction coil. Two additional mice, used as controls, were placed in the coil but received no AMF exposure. Tissue and core temperatures as the response were measured in situ and recorded at 1-second intervals. Results - No adverse effects were observed for AMF amplitudes of V700 Oe, even at continuous power application (100% duty) for up to 20 minutes. Mice exposed to AMF amplitudes in excess of 950 Oe experienced morbidity and injury when the duty exceeded 50%. Conclusion -High-amplitude AMF (up to 1,300 Oe) was well tolerated provided the duty was adjusted to dissipate heat. Results presented suggest that further tissue temperature regulation can be achieved with suitable variations of pulse width for a given amplitude and duty combination. These results suggest that it is possible to apply high-amplitude AMF (>500Oe) with pulsing for a time sufficient to treat cancer tissue in which magnetic nanoparticles have been embedded.